White pine blister rust is not a serious disease of currants and gooseberries; however, it is a very serious disease of white pines (Pinus strobus). Currants and gooseberries serve as an alternate host for the rust fungus that causes white pine blister rust. Therefore, planting currants and gooseberries in areas where white pines are present can lead to serious losses of white pines. North American white pine species, including bristlecone, limber, sugar, eastern white, southwestern white, western white, and whitebark, are highly susceptible.
In 1947, the Ohio General Assembly passed enabling legislation that allowed townships to establish zoning. While the procedures and methods to create zoning are established by the Ohio General Assembly, the content of the local zoning regulation is at the discretion of township residents. Ohio law is designed to involve the public in the decision-making process. Township trustees are charged with hiring a zoning enforcement officer.
Soil compaction is a common and constant problem on most farms that till the soil. Heavy farm machinery can create persistent subsoil compaction (Hakansson and Reeder, 1994). Johnson et al. (1986) found that compacted soils resulted in: (a) restricted root growth; (b) poor root zone aeration; and (c) poor drainage that results in less soil aeration, less oxygen in the root zone, and more losses of nitrogen from denitrification.
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 enacted a federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) in order to increase rural economic activity and reduce U.S. dependence on imported liquid fuels. One mandate contained in the RFS is that the United States will consume 100 million gallons of ethanol produced from cellulose in calendar 2010, rising to 16 billion gallons in calendar 2025.
No-till versus Tillage—In the Midwest, about three-fourths of all soybeans and wheat are planted without prior tillage. But before corn is planted at least three-fourths of the fields are tilled in the fall and possibly tilled again in the spring. Farmers are tilling ahead of corn planting because they perceive a yield increase with tillage that is more than enough to cover the added direct costs for machinery, fuel, and labor. Typically, soybeans are no-tilled into corn stalks followed by soybean residue being tilled for corn planting the next year.
Liquid animal manure is a valuable source of nutrients and organic matter for crop production and can be applied by a variety of methods including spray irrigation, land surface spreading, and shallow subsurface injection. Because of relatively low nutrient concentration, liquid animal manure may be applied at relatively high volumes, but it is generally recommended that it not be applied at rates that exceed the soil infiltration rate, nor exceed the amount needed to bring the soil to field water holding capacity (Johnson and Eckert, 1995).
Cover Crops Rotations after Cash Grain Crop—Cover crops offer many benefits for agriculture that include erosion control; reduced compaction and nutrient leaching; increased water infiltration; improved soil biodiversity; weed control and disease suppression; increased carbon sequestration and maximum nutrient recycling; improved air, soil, and water quality; and wildlife enhancement. Every cover crop species has its own niche and attributes for agricultural production.
Oilseed radish is a unique cover crop that farmers are planting to improve their soil quality for economic crop production. It has the ability to recycle soil nutrients, suppress weeds and pathogens, break up compaction, reduce soil erosion, and produce large amounts of biomass. Freezing temperatures of 20° to 25° will kill oilseed radish which allows for successful no-till spring planting of subsequent crops. As a fast growing, cool season cover crop, oilseed radish is best utilized when planted after small grain (e.g. wheat) or corn silage harvest.
There is a need for farmers and growers to be able to evaluate soil quality in the field to help guide sustainability of agricultural management practices. Since soil organic matter (SOM) is the most widely acknowledged core indicator of soil quality, temporal changes in small but relatively active fractions of SOM may provide an early indication of soils' functional capability in response to management practices.