Powdery mildew fungi are found on many native plants, cultivated crops, ornamentals, and turfgrass species. In general, it is not considered to be a serious disease on turf. Powdery mildew occurs on a wide variety of turfgrass species wherever turfgrasses are grown. In Ohio, it is primarily a concern on Kentucky bluegrass, although it may also occur to a lesser degree on various fescues. Severe outbreaks on Kentucky bluegrass tend to occur on turf growing in shaded areas during spring to fall when moderate temperatures and high relative humidity prevail.
Gray leaf spot is a disease of increasing importance in the turfgrass industry in the United States. It has been a chronic disease in St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) for many years. Recently, gray leaf spot has caused serious problems in common cool season grasses, especially annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; Figure 1). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) has been damaged by this disease in the southeastern United States. The same fungus causes blast on rice.
Rhizoctonia solani causes unsightly patches of blighted turfgrass (Figure 1) and is capable of infecting and killing most cultivated turfgrass species. This disease is very damaging to young immature grass seedlings. During long periods of hot, wet, and humid conditions, brown patch can develop so that a large blighted area can occur within 24–48 hours. Preventative and curative fungicide applications are made for managing the disease on highly cultivated turfgrass such as golf course greens, tees, and fairways.
Ohio residents are quite familiar with the distinctive “honking” voices from above as a flock of Canada geese fly by in v-formation overhead. To some, Canada geese represent one of nature’s more pleasing visual sights, while pond owners, golf club managers, and park district employees often view them as problematic. Prior to the 1960s, Canada geese were present in Ohio only during spring and fall migration, and they rarely nested.
Boxelder bugs (family: Rhopalidae) and leaffooted bugs (family: Coreidae) are larger species of true bugs that may invade buildings, especially during the warm days of autumn, to seek sheltered sites for overwintering. Large populations are often correlated with long, hot, dry summers. During the fall, they are attracted to buildings and occasionally to night-lights. They may fly through open doors and windows, but they most commonly enter homes and buildings through cracks and crevices around doors, windows, and roof soffits.
Earwigs are a relatively small group of insect that belong to the Order Dermaptera. Earwigs often upset people when discovered indoors. Their forceplike tail appendages make them look dangerous, but they are quite harmless. Earwigs run rapidly around baseboards, and they may emit a foul-smelling, yellowish-brown liquid from their scent glands when disturbed or crushed. Earwigs are mainly active at night, usually hiding during the daytime. They're often found in clusters hiding in dark crevices like door or window frames.
Clover mites sometimes invade homes and buildings in enormous numbers, in the early spring and late autumn. They can creep and gather in clusters on walls, drapes, window sills, and furniture; occasionally, they even get into beds and clothing. They may become troublesome in hospitals, nursing homes, apartments, food processing facilities, etc. If crushed, they leave a green stain with red-orange marks, which is quite noticeable on linens, curtains, walls, and woodwork.
Garlic mustard (Aliaria petiolata) is a cool-season biennial herbaceous plant first observed in the United States in the mid 1800s. It was introduced from Europe either accidentally or intentionally as a cooking herb. It is extremely tolerant of shaded conditions and is capable of establishing extensive, dense colonies in woodlands. In such situations, it out-competes and displaces native plants (wildflowers, trees, and shrubs) and the wildlife species that depend on them.
Summer and fall are perfect times to try the many varieties of Ohio apples. This year why not experiment with some specialty varieties? Ohio produces around 40 different varieties, some Ohio originals. Each of the Ohio apples possesses its own appearance, flavor, and texture characteristics. Select the variety according to its intended use.
Because they are often unexpected and traumatic, adolescent deaths profoundly impact communities. With the increase in school shootings and youth violence, there is a growing need for communities to develop and implement a response plan when traumatic deaths occur. Yet, often times school personnel, such as teachers, counselors, and nurses are rarely reported by survivors as being supportive. Below are ways in which schools, community professionals, and youth leaders can ease the trauma during future crises.