We make decisions every day, big and little. Decision making is an important skill to teach to children of all ages, because parents want children to grow up to be independent, responsible, happy adults. Some research has shown that those who are able to evaluate a situation and make a decision are often more successful in life. Decision making skills should start early with giving young children small choices between two options. However, as children turn into teens they will need to learn to make more decisions as they develop independence.
Conflict is a natural part of life brought on by our different beliefs, experiences, and values. If not managed carefully, however, conflict can harm relationships. Help with handling discord at minor levels may help to lessen greater risks such as divorce, and violence later on. Here are some steps that may be used to resolve conflicts, and some specific guidelines for helping children learn to solve problems on their own. The most important thing to remember is that practice makes perfect. Use and re-use these skills to improve interpersonal skills over a lifetime.
"How can we expect our children to know and experience the joy of giving, unless we teach them that the greater pleasure in life lies in the art of giving rather than receiving?"—J. C. Penney
Giving. Such a simple act that it is typically not given much thought. But giving is an important habit that should be learned and nurtured within the family. Giving establishes relationships and reinforces social ties.
In 2007, gifts by individuals reached $229.03 billion in the United States. This equals 74.8% of all giving.
Diets that are low in fat, high in fiber, and include at least five servings a day of fresh fruits and vegetables can protect against many types of cancer and lessen the risk of heart disease (4). However, it is essential that fresh food be produced safely. Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) during growing, harvesting, sorting, packaging, and storage of fresh fruits and vegetables are a set of guidelines to prevent microbial contamination.
Whether for a few minutes or a few hours, all parents will face this dilemma: Is my child old enough to stay home alone?
If you look to Ohio's state or local laws, you won't find a minimum age specified. Instead, the Ohio Revised Code says that parents are responsible for providing adequate and proper supervision and care for their children. So, the real question isn't so much one of age, but one of your child's maturity, readiness, and your ability to plan for safety, emergencies, and activities.
Gibberella ear rot is caused by the fungus Gibberella zeae (also known as Fusarium graminearum), the same pathogen that causes stalk rot of corn and head scab of wheat. The fungus typically infects via the silk channel, causing a pinkish-white mold to develop at the tip of the ear (fig. 1). Cool, wet weather (rainfall or high relative humidity) during and after silking (R1 growth stage) provides optimal conditions for the development of ear rot.
Dollar spot occurs on essentially all cultivated turfgrass species worldwide. In Ohio, it is primarily a concern on creeping bentgrass on golf courses and may be prevalent on bluegrass lawns. Dollar spot occurs from late spring to late fall and is most prominent after cool, moist weather.
Slime molds may be found on all cultivated and weedy grasses. They are most prevalent following prolonged periods of leaf wetness and may be observed from late spring to late fall. Although not directly damaged by slime molds, the aesthetic quality of a turfgrass stand may be affected by their presence. Plant vigor may be slightly reduced in severely colonized turf due to excessive growth of the fungus on leaves causing a shading of the leaf surface and leading to a reduction in photosynthesis. Slime molds may reoccur in the same location each year.
Powdery mildew fungi are found on many native plants, cultivated crops, ornamentals, and turfgrass species. In general, it is not considered to be a serious disease on turf. Powdery mildew occurs on a wide variety of turfgrass species wherever turfgrasses are grown. In Ohio, it is primarily a concern on Kentucky bluegrass, although it may also occur to a lesser degree on various fescues. Severe outbreaks on Kentucky bluegrass tend to occur on turf growing in shaded areas during spring to fall when moderate temperatures and high relative humidity prevail.
Gray leaf spot is a disease of increasing importance in the turfgrass industry in the United States. It has been a chronic disease in St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) for many years. Recently, gray leaf spot has caused serious problems in common cool season grasses, especially annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; Figure 1). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) has been damaged by this disease in the southeastern United States. The same fungus causes blast on rice.