Katzenbach and Smith (1986) define a team as a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and a common approach that they hold themselves mutually accountable. Often, 4-H clubs must operate as a team to complete such tasks as community service projects, fund raisers, fair booth, or float design, etc. However, it does not occur spontaneously. Team building within a 4-H club needs to be fostered deliberately.
Phomopsis twig blight may be the most common canker disease of blueberries. This disease has the potential to severely decrease yields, particularly on susceptible varieties. Losses result from premature ripening of the fruit, decreased productivity due to death of stems or entire plants, and rotted fruit.
Fruit rot of blueberry is a serious problem throughout the United States. Alternaria fruit rot is the most common and severe postharvest rot of blueberry, although it can be seen in the field on overripe fruit. Anthracnose (ripe rot) is a serious preharvest and postharvest disease. Botrytis fruit rot is typically a minor disease but can become severe. Other fruit rots are less common. Losses result from unmarketable fruit.
Angular leaf spot is the only bacterial disease of strawberry in the Midwest. Though not usually a major problem in the Midwest, once introduced into a planting it can become very serious. After the disease becomes established in a planting, not much can be done to manage it. Losses result from (1) decreased productivity from diseased or dead leaves and (2) reduced yields due to unmarketable fruit with calyx infections (figure 4).
For many years, the Eastern grape industry recognized a disease called "dead-arm," which was thought to be caused by the fungus Phomopsis viticola. In 1976, researchers demonstrated that the dead-arm disease was actually two different diseases that often occur simultaneously. Phomopsis cane and leaf spot (caused by the fungus Phomopsis viticola) is the new name for the cane- and leaf-spotting phase of what was once known as dead-arm.
Mummy berry is one of the most serious diseases of blueberry. Once the disease becomes established in a planting, it can destroy most of the crop. Losses result from rotted berries and[' killed or blighted blossoms and young shoots.
The simple act of measuring and recording the forage mass in pasture fields can help with many management decisions graziers must make. Most graziers are familiar with using measurements related to animal production, such as reading from the bulk milk tank or the weight of animals sent to auction. These are good measures to take because they relate directly to income but they are not timely enough to help make grazing decisions. Grazing must be one of the few industries unable to measure their primary product.
Early successional habitat is characterized primarily by grasses and forbs, often with brambles and shrubs pioneering into the site. This type of structure and cover is essential for a variety of wildlife species in Ohio. In recent years, there has been a decline in early successional wildlife habitat across Ohio. Some of this decline is attributed to residential and commercial development and natural succession to forest, but other areas have been converted to row crop production and non-native hay or pasture.
Hiring and compensating farm employees is a critical component in many farming operations in 21st century agriculture. For farm business owners, equitable compensation is critical to retaining quality employees and maintaining a profitable and successful farm business. For farm employees, equitable compensation is an important part of employment satisfaction.
Ohio cropland varies significantly in its production capabilities, and cropland values and cash rents vary across the state. Generally speaking, western Ohio cropland values and cash rents differ substantially from eastern Ohio cropland values and cash rents. This is due to a number of factors including land productivity, potential crop return, variability of crop return, field size, field shape, drainage, population, ease of access, market access, local market price, and competition for rented cropland in a region.