Ohio has many water resources from small streams and ponds to regional lakes, rivers, and Lake Erie. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) can have a significant impact on water quality, which effects human health, the economy, and recreation. For example, the HAB of 2014 in the Western Basin of Lake Erie resulted in a two-day water ban for 400,000 Toledo residents. The estimated economic impact of this event was $65 million (NOAA n.d.). HABs are now common enough to warrant annual forecasting. Several factors impact algae and water quality.
One of the most significant technological advancements for reduction of pesticide use in orchards and vineyards happened more than four decades ago: a rate controller on a sprayer. These gadgets enabled sprayer operators to keep the application rate constant, regardless of changes in ground speed. They are now a standard component on every new sprayer sold. No other significant developments occurred in spray technology for a couple of decades until the introduction of these innovations:
Did you know arthritis is the leading cause of disability? Fifty-four million Americans (one in four adults) have some form of arthritis. The word arthritis means joint inflammation. The four most common warning signs are pain, swelling, stiffness, and difficulty moving a joint. Although there are over one hundred types of arthritis, the three most common types are outlined below.
While water and other macronutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, make up the majority of the equine diet, micronutrients are no less important. Vitamins and minerals make up a very small portion of the diet; however, they play major roles in important physiological functions including bone and muscle function, digestion, and metabolism. In this fact sheet, we discuss the different micronutrients and the roles they play, along with best practices when incorporating them into horses’ diets.
Why are you here? What purpose do you serve? What difference do you make? Every organization should ask these key questions. It is equally important, however, for the organization’s members to be aware of answers to these questions. When every member of an organization and its stakeholders, supporters, customers, and funders understand how the organization impacts their lives and their communities, they can capitalize on opportunities to communicate its purpose and value.
Do you find that you feel guilty about not doing enough as a caregiver? Do you feel angry or resentful towards family or friends for not assisting you more in your caregiving responsibilities? Do you feel irritable or strained because of the stresses of caregiving?
Regardless of the crop being treated, or the equipment used to do it, applying pesticides requires a much higher level of skill and knowledge than all other operations required to grow crops. This is especially the case when spraying fruit trees and grapevines for insect, disease, and mite control. Grapevines and fruit trees are challenging because of their wide variations in canopy characteristics (type, depth, height, and row distance) and the need to spray with sufficient momentum to reach the grapevine’s near side, far side, top, and bottom.
Among other things, selection of the best and the most appropriate spray equipment is essential for effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly application of pesticides. A much higher-level decision-making process is required when selecting sprayers for orchards and vineyards rather than field crops—especially when spraying for insects and diseases within the canopy.
Although each crop requires a slightly different approach to the application of pesticides, some general principles apply to almost all spraying situations. Spraying for fruit trees and grapevines is no different. But there are a number of factors that need to be accounted for to achieve maximum crop protection from a pesticide application: