Mosquitoes are small, long-legged flies with slender bodies that require pools of standing water to complete their development (Figure 1). As adults, male and female mosquitoes feed on plant nectar (Figure 2), but most species of female mosquitoes must feed on animal blood in order to produce eggs (Figure 3). During this process, female mosquitoes can transmit pathogens to humans such as viruses that cause West Nile fever and St. Louis encephalitis, and parasites that cause malaria and canine heartworm. Adults can vary in length from 0.15 to 0.5 inch.
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a common mosquito in southern Ohio, but it can occur in all Ohio counties. The mosquito is native to Asia but was introduced to the United States in 1985, likely in imported, used tires (Sprenger and Wuithiranyagool 1986). The tires provided a site for egg laying and larval development. Subsequent trade of the tires spread the mosquito throughout the eastern and midwestern United States.
In southwest Ohio a small turkey processing plant was facing closure. The permitted lagoon system that had treated the plant wastewater for decades created odors and threatened the groundwater. The company was looking for a way to treat the high-strength, high-fat-content wastewater in an affordable way. Pretreating the wastewater with dissolved air floatation (DAF) and constructing a sewer extension to the municipal treatment plant in the neighboring city was deemed cost prohibitive.
Vaccines have been used by humans for over 225 years to prevent serious illness or death from infectious agents. Immunization currently prevents 4–5 million deaths every year (World Health Organization 2021). Vaccination allows the body to educate your immune system to recognize and eliminate foreign invaders (pathogens) before they cause disease. Several vaccines, such as those for smallpox in humans and rinderpest in cattle, have been so successful the disease is all but gone (Greenwood 2014).
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, a condition caused by several viruses including hepatitis A, B, C, and E. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogen found in several agriculturally important animal species and in humans. Humans can acquire some strains of HEV from animals. HEV is endemic in many U.S. swine herds without producing detectable disease and has been detected in pork products sold in grocery stores (Feagins et al. 2007).
Before implementing a Business Retention Expansion (BRE) program, community partners and professionals often identify reliable, existing data to help develop a better understanding of the community and its business trends. Data can be facts or figures from which conclusions may be drawn (Ajayi 2017). There are a variety of local, state, regional, and national data sources available for consideration. When coordinating a BRE program in a community, it is important to carefully gather reliable community data from both internal and external sources.
Onions are a strong-flavored vegetable and can be used in a variety of ways. Deep-fried onion rings and French onion soup are favorites. Popular uses for onions include seasoning in salads, soups, casseroles, main dishes, sauces, and relishes. Green onions are available in the spring while other varieties peak in Ohio from August 1 to October 15.
Peas are a cool weather crop available in June and July. There are two common varieties: green garden peas that need shelling and edible-pod peas that are eaten whole (snow peas and sugar snap peas). Peas add color, texture, and variety to meals.
Though Ohio is not considered a major peach growing state, it has about 1,000 acres of peach orchards with the majority of the trees being Red Haven cultivars. Except for a few, the different types of peaches are not easy to distinguish among the many varieties.
Though there are thousands of varieties of pears, only about ten are grown and sold commercially.
For information on pear varieties in Ohio, contact your county educator in agriculture and natural resources at Ohio State University Extension, or a master gardener volunteer.