Garlic (Allium sativum) is a culinary necessity in many kitchens. Native to Central Asia, it can be easily grown and takes up very little space in the garden. Garlic is a relative of the onion, shallot, and leek. Garlic and onion can be differentiated by their leaves — garlic leaves are flat while onion leaves are round and hollow. A head of garlic is composed of individual cloves enclosed in a papery bulb cover. Each clove is actually a small bulb; that bulb is a collection of unexpanded leaves.
To make sauerkraut, shredded cabbage is mixed with salt and allowed to ferment. The amount of salt added is critical to assuring food safety, and should not be adjusted. Fermentation takes three to six weeks depending on the air temperature. During this time, the acidity in the product will increase. Once the sauerkraut is fermented, it may be canned or frozen.
Growers who have grown tomatoes in a single location for several years may notice stunting, yellowing and reduced yields. These symptoms may indicate soilborne diseases. Soilborne disease complexes, composed of two or more soilborne pathogens, may reduce yield and quality of tomato crops, particularly in long-term protected culture production. Soilborne disease complexes consisting of Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt, corky root rot, black dot root rot, and root knot nematodes are present in tomato production operations in Ohio.
Soilborne diseases are increasingly problematic in intensive vegetable production. Several pathogens may occur together in a disease complex, which is very difficult to manage. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a method of soilborne disease management effective against a wide range of soilborne pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and nematodes. ASD is a three-step process in which soil is amended with a carbon source, irrigated to saturation, and tarped with plastic sheeting for several weeks.
Tractor mounted post-hole diggers can be extremely efficient for setting posts, building fence or planting trees. However, like other pieces of heavy machinery, if not used properly post-hole diggers can cause injuries or fatalities. The three most common incidents involve entanglement of the power take-off (PTO) driveline, entanglement with the rotating auger, and injury to bystanders by objects being thrown from the rotating auger when digging. Injuries sustained from post-hole diggers can be avoided with a little forethought and by following a standard set of guidelines.
Farmers throughout Ohio use anhydrous ammonia (NH3) as one source of nitrogen fertilizer for crops. All associated personnel should be familiar with the safe use of anhydrous ammonia, understand the potential for injury and know how to respond to an emergency.
The carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis, is a major pest of parsley, celery and carrots in the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. Adult carrot weevils are small (0.2-0.6 centimeters long), mottled-brown beetles with a distinctive snout that is typical of weevils (Figure 1). These weevils rarely fly; thus, they colonize fields primarily by walking from overwintering sites and will feign death when disturbed.
Community Service is a part of 4-H, beginning with pledging our hands to larger service. 4-H members and volunteers have historically given back to their community through a variety of volunteer efforts, and serving others should still be a part of each 4-H club’s yearly plan.