Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) (Drosophila suzukii) is an invasive vinegar fly that attacks otherwise healthy ripening soft-bodied fruits. SWD is native to southeastern Asia, and most likely arrived in other countries via overseas trade of infested fruit. The first U.S. detection occurred in Hawaii in 1980, and in 2008, it was found in the continental U.S. in California. This pest has since spread rapidly to all states except Nevada and Arizona by 2016. It was detected in Ohio raspberries in 2011, and in a variety of small fruit and grapes in 2012.
Signage welcomes customers to a farm or market. It can provide information about your farm products, share product attributes, display prices, and invite customers to buy. Signs can skillfully direct customers around agritourism operations and keep lines moving at the farmers market. Whether it’s a large, colorful banner displaying your farm logo or a small produce sign, good signage communicates your farm’s unique brand and value proposition.
Disease spreads quickly through ﬂocks, therefore, it is important to be able to tell when an animal is abnormal, physically or behaviorally, which can possibly indicate an illness. By observing the bird’s behavior in the ﬂock, as well as performing a physical exam, one can potentially prevent or limit the spread of disease to other birds and achieve a better outcome.
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, was first identified in Ohio in 1981 and has now been found on soybean in 72 of the 88 Ohio counties. SCN damages soybeans by feeding on roots, robbing the plants of nutrients, and providing wound sites for root rotting fungi to enter. The severity of symptoms and yield losses are dependent on several factors including: the number of nematodes present in the field at planting, the soybean variety, tillage practices, soil texture, fertility, pH, and environmental conditions during the growing season.
Phytophthora damping-off, root, and stem rot have been the most destructive diseases of soybeans in Ohio for more than 60 years. When rainfall saturates fields soon after planting, high incidence of seedling damping-off can result in yield losses greater than 50 percent in individual fields and require replanting. Statewide yield losses average 11 percent in years with wet springs and 8 percent in years with more normal planting seasons. The disease is most severe in poorly drained soils with high clay content.
Oak wilt is a serious and often deadly vascular disease of oaks. The fungal pathogen, Bretziella fagacearum (formerly Ceratocystis fagacearum), is known to occur in North America, but its origin is currently unknown. The pathogen is distributed throughout the Midwest and Texas. Over the years, and with variable frequency, it has been reported from the majority of the 88 Ohio counties.
When asked where bees live, a human-constructed hive teeming with honey bees is typically the first thing that comes to mind (Image 1). However, the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, is just one of 400+ species of bees found in Ohio! These pollinators exhibit a wide range of nesting strategies. Our wild bees can be grouped as cavity nesters or ground nesters. Ground nesting bees make up a surprising percent of the bee diversity—70 percent of the 20,000 species of bees worldwide! The remaining 30 percent of bees are considered cavity nesters.
In conversations about pesticides, certified organic agriculture, conventional production, and backyard gardening, questions are often raised concerning which pesticides can be used, where pesticides come from, and associated risks to people, pollinators, and the environment. Terms like “synthetic,” “toxicity,” “natural,” “organic,” and “chemicals” are sometimes used in confusing ways. The goal of this fact sheet is to provide an outline for understanding these and other terms as they relate to pesticides in organic and conventional crop production.
Pollinators are animals that transfer pollen among flowers, which leads to the production of fruits and seeds. Butterflies, bees, flies, beetles, birds, and bats are examples of common pollinators. Pollination is a crucial step in the production of many fruits, nuts, and vegetables that people eat. Insect pollinators feed on nectar and pollen, and in the process, transfer pollen to other plants. Bees and other pollinators help increase yields of apples, peaches, melons, and other crops.
Garden stores and online retailers often offer a variety of pesticide products for gardeners. How do you choose an appropriate product for your particular situation? What factors are important to consider? How do you know it will be safe and effective? To answer these questions, this factsheet provides an overview of five steps to follow and important information to look for on pesticide product labels in order to help you make an informed decision.