Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of foodborne illness. Commonly called "Staph aureus," this bacterium produces a poison/toxin that cause the illness. Staph aureus exists in air, dust, sewage, water, milk, and food or on food equipment, environmental surfaces, humans, and animals. Humans and animals are the primary way the bacteria are transported through the environment. Staph aureus are present in the nasal passages, the throat, and on the hair and skin of 50% or more of healthy individuals.
Botulism is the name of the food poisoning we get by consuming the toxin of bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulism is a rare but serious foodborne disease that can be fatal. There are two different types of botulism poisoning associated with foods—adult and infant botulism.
Our forefathers built America using timber harvested from virgin forests. Giant Douglas-firs and old growth southern pines provided straight-grained boards with many annual rings per inch for home construction, and slow grown hardwoods provided wide boards with excellent grain patterns for furniture. Warp and seasoning checks were minimized by the nature of this old-growth wood.
Inclement weather and fewer daylight hours can make winter roadway travel challenging and dangerous. Negotiating hills and turns under snowy and icy conditions presents demands on both drivers of horse-drawn vehicles and on motorists. However, winter roads also present another danger to pedestrians and operators of horse-drawn vehicles—the presence of snowplows. While there are few rules governing the specific interaction between snowplows and horse-drawn vehicles, there are several best management practices to ensure a safe encounter.
Fish and seafood harvested from seawater can be contaminated with Vibrio species bacteria, natural inhabitants of the marine environment. The two species with the greatest national public health concern are Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Vibrio cholera, along with these two species, are pathogens of public health concern in other areas of the world. Fortunately, the bacteria are destroyed with heat, so thoroughly cooking seafood is effective at controlling these pathogens in food.
Yersinia enterocolitica causes foodborne illness in this country and has the most serious public health significance. Y. pseudotuberculosis causes gastroenteritis but foodborne cases have only been recorded in Japan. A third type, Y. pestis, causes the plague but is not transferred to people through food. Animals (pigs, birds, beavers, cats, and dogs) carry Y. enterocolitica and can cause contamination of soil and water, which in turn can contaminate foods of all types. Infection with Y.
Aphids are small (1⁄16–1/8 inch long), soft-bodied insects commonly called plant lice or ant cows. Virtually every plant has at least one aphid species that attacks it. These small insects are masters of reproduction and are often found in great numbers on stems or leaves. Some species even feed on the roots of plants. They range in color from green to brown, red, black or purple. Some species may even have different color forms in the same colony. Most have the soft exoskeleton exposed, but some species produce waxy, cottony strands that cover the body.
Lace bugs are common pests of a variety of ornamental trees and shrubs. The adults have highly ornamented wings and a hood-like structure covering the head. The entire surface is covered with veins that look like lace. The most common lace bug pests in Ohio include the sycamore lace bug (Corythucha ciliata), hawthorn lace bug (C. cydoniae), hackberry lace bug (C. celtidis), oak lace bug (C.
Pharaoh ants have become a serious nuisance pest in hospitals, rest homes, apartment dwellings, hotels, grocery stores, food establishments, and other buildings. They feed on a wide variety of foods including jellies, honey, shortening, peanut butter, corn syrup, fruit juices, baked goods, soft drinks, greases, dead insects, and even shoe polish. Also, these ants gnaw holes in silk, rayon, and rubber goods. In hospitals, foraging ants have been found in surgical wounds, I.V.
Carpet beetles feed on animal and plant substances such as wool, fur, feathers, hair, hides, horns, silk, velvet, felts, and bone as well as seeds, grain, cereals, cake mixes, red pepper, rye meal, and flour. Other substances include powdered milk, dog and cat food, leather, book bindings, dead insects, bird and rodent nests, and even cotton, linen, rayon, and jute, especially when stained with spilled food and animal excreta.