All farm crops have some unit of measure associated with their market value. In the case of logs and lumber, the unit of measure is board feet—or more often, thousands of board feet (MBF). Most agricultural products are also judged by some quality scale or grading system. The grading criteria for hardwood lumber in Ohio are based on National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) rules, which are universal throughout the United States and Canada.
Everyone can utilize tools and technology to make life easier and perform tasks with more efficiency. However people with disabilities face even greater challenges in performing essential tasks in life. These challenges are especially evident with those individuals with a disability involved in agriculture. Farming is traditionally a labor-intensive profession that involves physically demanding work. With the use of assistive technology, farmers with a disability can maintain their independence and productive lifestyle on the farm.
Long exposure to cold, wet, and windy conditions can be dangerous even at temperatures above freezing. Since many tasks on the farm must be completed regardless of the weather conditions, farmers should know how to detect and respond to cold stress injuries.
, During cold weather, work must be done around the farm, such as feeding livestock, breaking ice in the water trough, cutting wood, or loading stored grain. Even though it may be tempting to "tough it out" or "work through it," prolonged exposure to cold, wet, and windy conditions can be dangerous, even at temperatures above freezing. At an increased risk are farmers who take certain medications, are in poor physical health, or suffer from illnesses such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or cardiovascular disease.
There are several chinch bugs that attack turfgrasses in North America. The hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montandon, is the most commonly encountered pest of northern turfgrasses though the common chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus leucopterus Say, is occasionally found.
Yellowjackets (Family: Vespidae) are predatory wasps that occur throughout North America. The German yellowjacket first appeared in Ohio in 1975 and is now the dominant species in the state; the other species are natives. In the late summer (August–October), their food preferences change from proteins to sweets. At this time, yellowjackets are known to be persistent, unwelcome guests at picnics and other outdoor events, as they fly about scavenging for food, especially sugary foods and drinks.
Fleas (Order: Siphonaptera) are very important pests on domestic dogs and cats, especially during the warm months of July through October, but fleas may persist all year indoors. It is estimated that pet owners alone spend over $1 billion each year controlling these ectoparasites.
What is a Worm Egg Count?
A fecal worm egg count (FEC) is done on manure to look for worm eggs. It is quantitative versus qualitative in that the result is expressed as the number of eggs per gram (epg) of manure as opposed to "positive" or "negative" or "+, ++, or +++" results that are often given from simple flotation procedures. A quantitative result gives us a means to quantify changes over time or in response to a treatment.
There are a variety of Escherichia coli bacteria present in nature. They are usually found in the intestines of healthy humans and healthy animals. Even though these bacteria offer beneficial properties, there are some strains that are pathogenic, or have the ability to cause serious disease. The most severe strains produce the Shiga toxin; thus, a larger group of pathogenic E. coli is called Shiga-Toxin Escherichia coli, or STEC.
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of foodborne illness. Commonly called "Staph aureus," this bacterium produces a poison/toxin that cause the illness. Staph aureus exists in air, dust, sewage, water, milk, and food or on food equipment, environmental surfaces, humans, and animals. Humans and animals are the primary way the bacteria are transported through the environment. Staph aureus are present in the nasal passages, the throat, and on the hair and skin of 50% or more of healthy individuals.