Energy is embodied in all of the equipment, inputs, and products of agriculture. Agriculture both uses and supplies energy in the form of bioenergy and food. The amount of energy used in agriculture has grown substantially, and currently, the agri-food chain accounts for 30 percent of the total energy used around the world . Sustainable agricultural production requires the optimization of land use, energy efficiency, end of the use of fossil energy sources, and minimization of environmental impacts. Current agricultural systems are heavily dependent on fossil energy resources.
Ohio cropland values and cash rental rates are projected to decrease in 2018. According to the Western Ohio Cropland Values and Cash Rents Survey, bare cropland values in western Ohio are expected to decrease from 1.7 to 3.6 percent in 2018 depending on the region and land class. Cash rents are expected to decline from 1.2 percent to 3.0 percent depending on the region and land class.
Hydrangeas are relatively easy to grow with a variety of flower colors and sizes. The popularity of hydrangeas has grown tremendously during recent years. As a group, they can bloom from May through fall and have features that garner interest into early winter. Their name, hydrangea, comes from the Greek words “hydor” meaning water, referring to the plant’s preference for moisture, and “aggeion” meaning vessel, referring to the shape of the seed capsule (Oregon State University, 2015). Below are pictures of common hydrangeas grown in Ohio.
The ability to place fertilizer and other soil amendments below the soil surface can be a powerful tool for producers in the Ohio area. Equipment that performs this function can vary in horsepower requirements, fertilizer placement capabilities, and may not always be best suited for the desired application. It is unclear in some cases the capabilities and suitability of these machines for farmers in Ohio. Below are a few considerations of the benefits and types of equipment available on the market today.
To make barbecue (BBQ) or hot sauces, tomatoes are combined with spices, vinegar, and various other ingredients and blended until smooth. The mixture is simmered to reduce the volume and thicken the product. BBQ and hot sauces can be used as marinades to prepare raw meat, poultry, seafood, and even vegetables for cooking. They can also be added to cooked foods, casseroles, and slow cooker recipes, and used as dips or condiments.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biochemical process that uses microorganisms to degrade organic materials. AD is a mature technology used for decades as a waste stabilization and/or bioenergy production process. AD transforms organic matter into biogas and a nutrient-rich effluent or “digestate.” Biogas is a mixture of gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which can be either burned directly for heat and power generation, or upgraded to be used as a transportation fuel.
Downy mildew is the most wide spread and destructive disease of hops (Humulus lupulus) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Downy mildew is caused by the fungal-like pathogen Pseudoperonospora humuli and is most severe during wet weather and mild temperatures. The disease is systemic and can cause significant yield and quality losses annually.