Traditionally, aerial spraying of pesticides has been done using conventional fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters with a pilot onboard. However, this is changing. Small, remotely piloted aircraft are being used to apply pesticides around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. For example, about 30% of all agricultural spraying in South Korea, and about 40% of Japan’s rice crop, is sprayed using drones.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient in crop production. However, excessive amounts of P in streams and lakes near crops can also lead to higher aquatic plant growth. This process, called eutrophication, results in depleted dissolved oxygen in water bodies. A soil test for P (STP) defines the agronomic need for a nutrient application of P to support crop yields and can indicate the increased risk of P loss in surface and tile water leaving a field.
Elderberries have been a medicinal plant and a landscape shrub dating back to prehistoric use (Brobst 2013) and have appeared in a written record in 400 BCE by Hippocrates (Williams 2021). Two main types of elderberries are American elderberry (Sambucus nigra (subsp. canadensis)) and European elderberry (Sambucus nigra). During the last 20 years, elderberries have been trialed and planted as a fruit crop at the University of Missouri.