CFAES Give Today

Ohio State University Extension


Jackson County’s Forest Economy

Agriculture and Natural Resources
Eric McConnell, PhD, Forest Operations and Products Extension Specialist, Ohio State University Extension
David Apsley, Natural Resources Specialist, Ohio State University Extension

Jackson County contains 420 square miles (268,800 acres) of land and is home to 33,225 citizens[1]. There are 141 industries in the county, with the average household earning an income of $68,400. A green tractor rolling over wet soil in the woods.Major employers include businesses in the sectors of frozen food manufacturing, food services, and state and local governments[2]

The land resources of Jackson County provide many economic benefits. The county's 460 agricultural farms produce cattle and calves, agronomic crops, and hay, among others[3]. Overall, 71,000 acres of land are in farms.

An abundance of forested acres, though, are present in Jackson County as well. Responsibly managing these woodlands provides community support by producing economic activity in six forest industrial sectors. These businesses directly generate $63.0 million in industrial output and $4.12 million in taxes[2]. This fact sheet presents some key terms and figures for describing the many contributions Jackson County's forests and forest industries provide to the local economy.A white map of Ohio with Jackson County  shaded in.

Forest Resource Terminology[4]

Acre: A unit of land measure equal to 43,560 square feet (208.7 feet x 208.7 feet). One square mile equals 640 acres.

Forest Type Group: A classification of forest land based on the species forming a plurality of live-tree stocking. Forest types sharing closely associated species or site requirements are often combined into major forest type groups.

Growing Stock Volume: Net volume, in cubic feet, of growing-stock trees 5.0 inches in diameter and larger, measured at breast height (4.5 feet). Height is recorded from a 1-foot stump to a minimum 4.0-inch top diameter outside bark of the central stem, or to the point where the central stem breaks into limbs. Gross volume minus deductions for cull equals net volume.A pie chart depicting how much land in Jackson County is forestland, farmland, and other nonforested land.

Sawtimber Volume: Net volume in board feet, by the International ¼-inch rule, of sawlogs in sawtimber trees. Gross volume minus the deductions for rot, sweep, and other defects that affect use for lumber equals net volume.

Forest Industry Impact Analysis Terminology[6]

Direct Economic Impact: The effect generated by the industry of interest in an economic impact analysis. This is measured through employment, value-added, and industrial outputA pie chart depicting how much land in Jackson County has private ownership versus state ownership. produced to meet demand for the manufactured product(s).

Employment: The total wage and salary and self-employed jobs in a geographical area. This number includes both full-time and part-time jobs in an industrial sector.

Direct Federal Tax Impact: Taxes collected by the United States government. These taxes are generated from labor income, indirect business taxes, households, and corporations associated with the industry of interest.

Direct State and Local Tax Impact: Taxes paid to state, county, and municipal governments. These taxes are generated from labor income, indirect business taxes, households, and corporations associated with the industry of interest.A pie chart showing how much of the forestry in Jackson County is oak or hickory versus other forest types.

Indirect Business Taxes: These taxes are primarily sales and excise taxes paid by individuals to businesses through normal operations. They do not include taxes on corporate profits and dividends.

Industrial Output: The total value of production measured as the sum of value-added plus the cost of buying goods and services to produce the product(s).

Labor Income: Wages and benefits paid to employees plus proprietary income for self-employed work.

Value-Added: The sum of labor income, interest, profits, and indirect business taxes.A blue bar graph depicting the diameter of stock in million cubic feet.

Why Should I Manage My Woodland?

  • Properly managing your woodland improves forest health, aesthetics, and wildlife habitat. It also provides soil stabilization, clean water, self-satisfaction, and a potential source of income.
  • Managing timber requires less long-term inputs compared to many other land uses.
  • You are able to obtain cost share funds to establish your woodland, tax credits while managing your forest property, and preferable tax treatment at harvest. A pie chart depicting the volume of sawtimber in different species groups.
  • Standing timber is a stable form of wealth, often comparable in performance to mutual fund investments.

How Can I Learn to Better Manage My Woodland?

  • Become actively involved in the stewardship of your property.
  • Join your local forestry association.
  • Contact your local service forester to assist you in developing a management plan for your property.A bar graph depicting the amount of money that different agricultural products bring in.
  • Contact your local Soil and Water Conservation District to provide you soils information.
  • Contact a professional forester when considering a timber sale,  


School of Environment and Natural Resources
The Ohio State University
2021 Coffey Road
Columbus, OH 43210
Phone: (614) 688-3421
The Ohio State University Extension, Jackson CountyA bar graph depicting the cost of labor income, employment, industrial output, and value-added.
17 Standpipe Road
Jackson, OH 45640
Phone: (740) 286-5044
Fax: (740) 286-1578
Ohio Division of Forestry
360 East State St.
Athens, OH 45701
Phone: (740) 589-9915
Fax: (740) 589-9929
Jackson County Soil and Water Conservation District
2026 Fairgreens Road
Jackson, OH 45640
Phone: (740) 286-5208
Fax: (740) 286-0389
Web: jswcd.orgA bar graph depicting the number of people employed in different areas of Jackson County's forest industry.
Ohio Forestry Association
Office: 746 Morrison Road, Columbus, OH 43230
Mail: 1100-H Brandywine Blvd.,
Zanesville, OH 43701
Phone: (614) 497-9580
Fax: (614) 497-9581
Call Before You Cut
Phone: (877) 424-8288
A  bar graph depicting the direct tax impact of state versus federal taxes on the forest industry.


National Agricultural Statistics Service. (2010). Agricultural Statistics 2010. United States Department of Agriculture.

United States Forest Service. (2012). Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Symposium 2012. United States Department of Agriculture.

Woudenberg, S.W., Conkling, B.L., O’Connell, B.M., LaPoint, E.B., Turner, J.A., & Waddell, K.L. (2010). The Forest Inventory and Analysis Database: Database Description and Users Manual Version 4.0 for Phase 2. United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

We thank Dr. Matt Bumgardner, United States Forest Service, and Dr. Gary Graham, OSU Extension, for their reviews of this fact sheet.

1All other crop farming includes (1) growing crops (except oilseeds and/or grains; vegetables and/or melons; fruits and/or tree nuts; greenhouse, nursery and/or floriculture products; tobacco; cotton; sugarcane; or hay) or (2) a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseeds and grains; and a combination of fruits and tree nuts) with no one crop or family of crops accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e. value of crops for market).



Originally posted Aug 29, 2012.