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Ohio State University Extension


Jackson County’s Forest Economy

Agriculture and Natural Resources
Eric McConnell, PhD, Forest Operations and Products Extension Specialist, Ohio State University Extension
David Apsley, Natural Resources Specialist, Ohio State University Extension

Jackson County contains 420 square miles (268,800 acres) of land and is home to 33,225 citizens[1]. There are 141 industries in the county, with the average household earning an income of $68,400. Major employers include businesses in the sectors of frozen food manufacturing, food services, and state and local governments[2].

Figure 1. Commercial logging is a significant sector in Jackson County's forest economy. Photo credit: Dr. Gary Graham.

The land resources of Jackson County provide many economic benefits. The county's 460 agricultural farms produce cattle and calves, agronomic crops, and hay, among others[3]. Overall, 71,000 acres of land are in farms.

An abundance of forested acres, though, are present in Jackson County as well. Responsibly managing these woodlands provides community support by producing economic activity in six forest industrial sectors. These businesses directly generate $63.0 million in industrial output and $4.12 million in taxes[2]. This fact sheet presents some key terms and figures for describing the many contributions Jackson County's forests and forest industries provide to the local economy.

Forest Resource Terminology[4]

Acre: A unit of land measure equal to 43,560 square feet (208.7 feet x 208.7 feet). One square mile equals 640 acres.

Forest Type Group: A classification of forest land based on the species forming a plurality of live-tree stocking. Forest types sharing closely associated species or site requirements are often combined into major forest type groups.

Growing Stock Volume: Net volume, in cubic feet, of growing-stock trees 5.0 inches in diameter and larger, measured at breast height (4.5 feet). Height is recorded from a 1-foot stump to a minimum 4.0-inch top diameter outside bark of the central stem, or to the point where the central stem breaks into limbs. Gross volume minus deductions for cull equals net volume.

Sawtimber Volume: Net volume in board feet, by the International ¼-inch rule, of sawlogs in sawtimber trees. Gross volume minus the deductions for rot, sweep, and other defects that affect use for lumber equals net volume.

Forest Industry Impact Analysis Terminology[6]

Direct Economic Impact: The effect generated by the industry of interest in an economic impact analysis. This is measured through employment, value-added, and industrial output produced to meet demand for the manufactured product(s).

Employment: The total wage and salary and self-employed jobs in a geographical area. This number includes both full-time and part-time jobs in an industrial sector.

Direct Federal Tax Impact: Taxes collected by the United States government. These taxes are generated from labor income, indirect business taxes, households, and corporations associated with the industry of interest.

Direct State and Local Tax Impact: Taxes paid to state, county, and municipal governments. These taxes are generated from labor income, indirect business taxes, households, and corporations associated with the industry of interest.

Indirect Business Taxes: These taxes are primarily sales and excise taxes paid by individuals to businesses through normal operations. They do not include taxes on corporate profits and dividends.

Industrial Output: The total value of production measured as the sum of value-added plus the cost of buying goods and services to produce the product(s).

Labor Income: Wages and benefits paid to employees plus proprietary income for self-employed work.

Value-Added: The sum of labor income, interest, profits, and indirect business taxes.

Why should I manage my woodland?

  • Properly managing your woodland improves forest health, aesthetics, and wildlife habitat. It also provides soil stabilization, clean water, self-satisfaction, and a potential source of income.
  • Managing timber requires less long-term inputs compared to many other land uses.
  • You are able to obtain cost share funds to establish your woodland, tax credits while managing your forest property, and preferable tax treatment at harvest.
  • Standing timber is a stable form of wealth, often comparable in performance to mutual fund investments.

How can I learn to better manage my woodland?

  • Become actively involved in the stewardship of your property.
  • Join your local forestry association.
  • Contact your local service forester to assist you in developing a management plan for your property.
  • Contact your local Soil and Water Conservation District to provide you soils information.
  • Contact a professional forester when considering a timber sale,

Figure 2. Jackson County is located in Ohio's southeastern timber price reporting region[3]. Figure 3. Jackson County contains 167,622 forested acres, which is 62.4% of the total land cover[1, 5].

Figure 4. Jackson County's forested acres are 92.7% privately owned, which amounts to 155,427 acres[5]. Figure 5. Oak/hickory is the predominant forest type within Jackson County[5].

Figure 6. Growing stock volume by 2 inch diameter class[5]. Figure 7. Sawtimber volume by species group[5].

Figure 8. Industrial output of the top agricultural and natural resources products in Jackson County, 20101[2]. Figure 9. Direct economic impact of Jackson County's forest industries, 2010[2]. Labor income, value-added and industrial output are represented on the left Y-axis, and employment is represented on the right Y-axis.

Figure 10. Jackson County's top forest industry employers by sector, 2010[2]. Figure 11. Direct tax impact of Jackson County's forest industries, 2010[2].

For more information, please consult the following sources:

School of Environment and Natural Resources
The Ohio State University
2021 Coffey Road
Columbus, OH 43210
Phone: (614) 688-3421
The Ohio State University Extension, Jackson County
17 Standpipe Road
Jackson, OH 45640
Phone: (740) 286-5044
Fax: (740) 286-1578
Ohio Division of Forestry
360 East State St.
Athens, OH 45701
Phone: (740) 589-9915
Fax: (740) 589-9929
Jackson County Soil and Water Conservation District
2026 Fairgreens Road
Jackson, OH 45640
Phone: (740) 286-5208
Fax: (740) 286-0389
Ohio Forestry Association
Office: 746 Morrison Road, Columbus, OH 43230
Mail: 1100-H Brandywine Blvd.,
Zanesville, OH 43701
Phone: (614) 497-9580
Fax: (614) 497-9581
Call Before You Cut
Phone: (877) 424-8288


[1] United States Census, 2010.

[2] Estimates using IMPLAN® software supplied by the Minnesota IMPLAN Group, 2010.

[3] United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2010.

[4] United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis, 2012. Northeast Forest Inventory and Analysis Methodology: Common definitions used by FIA.

[5] United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Database, 2010.

[6] Minnesota IMPLAN Group, 2004. IMPLAN Professional®: Users Guide, Analysis Guide, Data Guide.

We thank Dr. Matt Bumgardner, United States Forest Service, and Dr. Gary Graham, OSU Extension, for their reviews of this fact sheet.

1All other crop farming includes (1) growing crops (except oilseeds and/or grains; vegetables and/or melons; fruits and/or tree nuts; greenhouse, nursery and/or floriculture products; tobacco; cotton; sugarcane; or hay) or (2) a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseeds and grains; and a combination of fruits and tree nuts) with no one crop or family of crops accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e. value of crops for market).



Originally posted Aug 29, 2012.