Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biochemical process that uses microorganisms to degrade organic materials. AD is a mature technology used for decades as a waste stabilization and/or bioenergy production process. AD transforms organic matter into biogas and a nutrient-rich effluent or “digestate.” Biogas is a mixture of gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which can be either burned directly for heat and power generation, or upgraded to be used as a transportation fuel.
Downy mildew is the most wide spread and destructive disease of hops (Humulus lupulus) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Downy mildew is caused by the fungal-like pathogen Pseudoperonospora humuli and is most severe during wet weather and mild temperatures. The disease is systemic and can cause significant yield and quality losses annually.