Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet

Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science

2001 Fyffe Court, Columbus, OH 43210-1096


Growing, Selecting And Using Basil

HYG-1644-94

Jeanne Youger-Comaty

Basil is truly an incredible herb. It is enjoyed for its rich and spicy, mildly peppery flavor with a trace of mint and clove. Basil is an annual herb belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae (Labiatae) and like others in this family, basil can be identified by its square, hairy stems. There are over 40 known varieties of basil of which Ocimum basilicum or Sweet Basil is the most commonly known and grown. Ocimum is from a Greek verb that means "to be fragrant." The foliage is easily bruised; just brushing against its foliage releases its wonderfully spicy fragrance. Varieties can grow to a height of 2 1/2 feet and are about as wide. Foliage colors range from pale to deep green, vivid purple and even purple laced with goldish yellow foliage. Texture varies from silky and shiny to dull and crinkly. Flowers appear in summer as whorls on the ends of branches and are either white or lavender. Some of the unusual fragrances and flavors include: cinnamon, lemon and anise. Basil is native to India and Asia having been cultivated there for more than 5,000 years. It is grown there as a perennial in those warm, tropical climates.

With so many attributes it isn't any wonder that basil has become increasingly popular over the years. Being a member of the mint family, it is not surprising to see it recommended for digestive complaints. So instead of an after dinner mint, try sipping an after dinner cup of basil tea to aid digestion and dispel flatulence. Herbalists have recommended basil for years for stomach cramps, vomiting and constipation. Basil has been described as having a slight sedative action, which would explain why it is sometimes recommended for headaches and anxiety.

Culture

Basil is surprisingly easy to grow. It is easily grown from seed regardless of whether it is started indoors or broadcast outside in the garden after the danger of frost has passed. Basil is very tender and sensitive to frost injury. For indoor culture, sow seeds in a flat, and cover them with a moistened, sterile mix to a depth not more than twice the size of the seed. Space seeds 3/8 to 1/2 inch apart in the flat. Maintain a soil temperature of approximately 70 degrees F. Once germination begins, at 5 to 7 days, the plantlets must be kept warm at 70 degrees F or above and the soil must be kept moist. When seedlings have at least 2 pairs of true leaves, transplant them to 2 inch pots.

Basils grow best in a sunny location and need a well-drained, rich soil. Plants started indoors and hardened off in May can be planted outside to their permanent location and spaced about 12 inches apart. Since moisture is important to a good basil crop, mulching the area will not only discourage weeds but will maintain the moisture level of the soil keeping the plant healthy. Basil prefers a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Fertilize basil sparingly as this decreases the fragrant oils. To encourage a bushy, healthy plant and to maximize production, don't be afraid to prune basil. Pinch off the flower buds as soon as they begin to emerge. Basil will usually have to be pruned every 2 to 3 weeks.

Harvesting

The ideal time to harvest basil and other herbs that are to be dried, is on a sunny morning immediately after the dew has evaporated and before the day becomes too warm. When harvesting basil, cut it back to about 1/4 inch above a node. Leave enough foliage on the plant so it can continue growing healthy.

There are several methods you can use to dry basil; all methods are relatively simple. First dry basil in small bunches by hanging them upside down in a dark, dry, warm, well ventilated room. Use twine, rubber bands or twist ties to hold the bundles together. Second, you can dry basil leaves on screens placed outside in the shade on a hot day. Cover them with cheesecloth to keep the leaves from blowing away. Still another method of drying is on a low setting in the microwave. Lay basil on a paper towel and cover it with a paper towel. It could take up to 3 minutes to dry basil in the microwave. Stop periodically throughout the drying process to turn the basil to help promote quicker drying and to avoid burning. It is very difficult to dry herbs without burning them because of hot spots in the microwave. If you smell the herb as it's drying, chances are you have lost many of the fragrant oils. After drying the basil, store in a sealed, preferably dark container away from the heat.

In addition to the drying methods mentioned above, you can also preserve basil by freezing it in ice cubes (nearest to fresh taste when added to cooked foods), putting fresh leaves in vinegar or oil (most useful in salad dressing), and blending it with oil, cheese, and pine nuts, (walnuts or sunflower seeds) to make pesto. Pesto freezes well for six months. Be sure to "seal" your pesto with a layer of olive oil. Dark opal basil makes a beautiful, tangy purple vinegar. Putting herbs in vinegar captures their flavor for the months when fresh herbs are not available.

Uses

Basils can be used in the herb garden, flower garden, as borders plants, in containers, raised beds, and in hanging baskets.

Each variety of basil can add an accent to a garden: dark opal offers stunning purple foliage and mauve flowers; the miniature or bush basil is especially attractive for borders; the ruffled varieties (O. basilicum 'PurpleRuffles' and O. basilicum 'Green RuMes') offer unique textures.

Bring the wonderful fragrance of basil indoors by incorporating them in potpourris, sachets, and dried winter bouquets. The heavily scented opal basil and the sweet scented thyrsiflora basil are particularly good. Other fragrant varieties include: lemon, anise and cinnamon basils.

The best flavor is found in fresh leaves, but frozen and dried leaves are worth the effort also. The leaves can be used cooked or raw. Crush, chip or mince the leaves and add to recipes, or add whole leaves to salads. Sprigs of basil make a wonderfully aromatic garnish. The flowers are beautiful, edible, and also make a unique garnish.

Basil is traditional in Italian, Mediterranean andThai cookery. It is superb with veal, lamb, fish, poultry, whitebeans, pasta, rice, tomatoes, cheese and eggs. It blends well with garlic, thyme and lemon. Basil adds zip to mild vegetables like zucchini, summer squash, eggplant, potatoes, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, parsnips, spinach and to the soups, stews and sauces in which these vegetables appear, and to add to its versatility, basil is also one of the ingredients in the liqueur chartreuse.

Basil Species and Varieties
NameFlowerLeavesComments
Ocimum basilicum Sweet BasilWhiteDeep green Excellent in salads, vinegars, pesto
O. basilicum 'Crispum' Lettuce-leaf BasilWhite Very large, crinkled Excellent in salads
O. basilicum 'Green Ruffles' Green Ruffles BasilWhite Lime grean, serrated, ruffled, much longer than sweet basil Excellant omamantal good accent plant, borders
O. basilicum 'Minimum' Bush Basil White 1-1 1/2 in. Dwarf, compact foml; good for pot culture and borders
O. basilicum 'Purple Ruffles' Purple Ruffles Basil Lavender Dark maroon, shiny Striking omamental; good accent plant, borda, excellent in vinegar and as a garnish
O. basilicum 'Purpurascens' Dark Opal Basil Lavender Deep purple, shiny Striking omamantal; excellent in vinegar and as a garnish
O. basilicum 'Thyrsiflora' Thyrsiflora BasilWhite and deep lavender Bright green, smooth Very sweet fragrance; used in Thai cooking
O. kilimandscharicum Camphor Basil White, red anthers Green Camphor scented; tea taken for stomachaches and colds; not used in cooking
O. sanctum Holy Basil Lavender Gray-green, coarse Sweet fragrance; excellent omamental; not used in cooking


All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension.

TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-6181



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