Maurus Brown, Assistant Professor and Extension Educator,
Agriculture, Natural Resources and Community Development
OSU Extension, Richland County
Blackberries can make a nice addition to the home fruit garden. Gardeners can enjoy blackberries as fresh fruit, jam, or cobbler. Maintaining a neat, clean blackberry planting can be a considerable challenge. A good weed, fertility, and pest control program can promote plant growth and quality fruit. Refer to OSU Extension Fact Sheet HYG-1423-98 (ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/1000/1423.html) for more information.
Proper establishment of blackberry plants is important. This fact sheet is intended to help gardeners better understand how blackberries should be pruned. Refer to the glossary of terms if you are not familiar with some of the words used in this fact sheet. Thorny, erect blackberries tend to be more aggressive in their vegetative growth than thornless varieties. Thornless, erect varieties tend to be slower to fill in rows and overall are more manageable than thorny blackberries. Blackberry vegetation can be managed through effective pruning practices and still maintain good quality fruit production.
Blackberries can become unmanageable if not pruned each year (Figure 1). Pruning can help you to maintain a fairly tangle-free blackberry patch and hopefully it will be a more enjoyable area in which to pick fruit (Figure 2). It is also important to keep the erect blackberries in a confined space in the garden. If allowed to do so, blackberries will send up new shoots out in other areas of the garden and yard.
|Figure 1. Primocanes of thorny, erect blackberries that have not been pruned.|
|Figure 2. Primocanes of thorny, erect blackberries that have been pruned.|
Blackberries are considered to be biennial fruiting plants. Primocanes are actively growing vegetative shoots that are produced in the first year, and the floricanes are normally the fruit-producing canes. Some erect blackberry varieties (e.g., Prime Jim, Prime Jan) produce fruit on primocanes in the fall. Primocanes, left un-tipped, can grow several feet in length. In the following year, primocanes mature into floricanes. Once the fruit has been harvested, the floricanes will eventually die. All spent floricanes should be removed from the blackberry planting. By removing the spent floricanes, more room will be available for new primocanes to grow the following year. The following steps will help you to keep your blackberry planting in good condition.
Primocane-fruiting blackberries (e.g., Prime Jim, Prime Jan) bear fruit on new canes that grew during the summer. This is different than floricane production in which the fruit is produced on canes that grew the previous year. Once fruiting is completed and frost has occurred, all primocanes can be pruned or mowed off. An alternative approach is to remove canes in early spring prior to when new growth emerges.
Thorny and thornless erect blackberries are generally pruned in the same manner. The thorny canes are more challenging to handle and often gardeners wear gloves and long-sleeved shirts to provide protection. Thornless varieties are smooth to the touch and are fairly easy to handle. Thorny blackberries tend to produce more canes and have more vegetation than thornless. Both thorny and thornless blackberry plants can bear green leaves well after frost.
As each new cane reaches approximately 48 inches, they should be tipped back (Figure 2). By tipping the ends of the canes, apical dominance is removed and growth hormones in the canes are released. This process will stimulate new growth from the lateral buds. Lateral shoot growth that develops prior to fruit bud formation will increase the amount of plant surface area in which fruit can be produced. With more aggressive varieties it is possible that the lateral branches will need to be tipped as well to help restrict the overall plant growth.
Hand tools such as loppers and hand pruners can be used to effectively remove spent canes from the blackberry planting. Select the appropriate tool to cleanly remove old canes. Hand pruners can be used to effectively remove tips of actively growing canes. Loppers are generally the tool of choice when removing several canes. Be sure that all pruning tools are maintained properly. Sharp tools will enable you to make smooth cuts and will cause less stress on the plants.
Learning to master the art and science of pruning blackberries takes time and practice. Contact your county Extension Educator for updated information on pruning. Make sure your blackberries are pruned each year to maintain the size and shape of the planting, maximize fruit production, and increase the overall fruit quality.
Ohio State University Extension Bulletin 591, Growing and Using Fruits at Home.
Ohio State University Extension Bulletin 782, Brambles Production Management and Marketing, ohioline.osu.edu/b782/.
Click here for PDF version of this Fact Sheet.
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Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Agricultural Administration and Director, OSU Extension TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-6181