Gregory P. Siek
Carla E. Hague
Organizations will join coalitions or collaborations because they see benefits of combining resources to work toward a common goal. Dealings between organizations are usually harmonious. On occasion, controversy develops. Sometimes it involves competition; occasionally it escalates into conflict. When left unresolved, this tension can often seriously damage the efforts of some or all the partners to reach the common goal.
This fact sheet will examine "turf issues" as one source of organizational tension. It will discuss what it is, how it happens and what to do. Suggestions will include situations where it is already noticeable, but also offer tips on how it can be avoided.
"Turf-ism" is the non-cooperation or conflict between organizations with seemingly common goals or interests. They would normally be expected to work together in a given situation.
The term "turf issues" is borrowed from street gang terminology. Every gang has its neighborhood or "turf" in which it operates, and it defends this area against other gangs (usually violently). This idea has its parallel in animal behavior in the idea of "territoriality." In this version, individual animals have their "home base" around their mating, feeding or nesting grounds that they defend against other animals, even those of the same species.
In theory, each organization has its "domain" or field of operation. It also has human and material resources, goals and tasks related to the goals. When relationships are formed by community and educational organizations, they agree to exchange resources. This is often called the "exchange theory" of organizational relations. In the effort to secure needed resources and reach goals, organizations often develop overlapping "domains." This may make them unexpectedly reluctant to enter the expected exchange. (Levine and White 1961) When this happens, a "turf battle" can take place.
Conflict usually involves perceptions of incompatible goals or threats to relationships. (Ross and Ross, 172) These perceptions lead to "turf protection" as organizations decide to "defend" their domain rather than share with another organization. Every time two organizations interact, they establish boundaries through "exchange" relationships. (Zald 1969) The basic factor in triggering a "turf battle" is the degree of power surrendered or gained by the organizations involved. "Power" as used here is the ability to control or manage resources to accomplish a goal. If both organizations feel they will gain by working together or having access to an equal degree of power, cooperation continues. But if one organization feels it has too much to lose by continued cooperation, it begins to defend its "turf."
These "turf battles" can take place for three fundamental reasons, all related to the perceived effect on power:
According to Zald, another reason for turf battles is the lack of knowledge or mistrust of the other organizations. If the target group or constituencies of two groups seem to overlap to a high degree, there is more likely to be cooperation. If one organization feels it does not have much in common with the proposed partner, it is less likely to feel the mutual benefits of the proposed action.
Turf battles also can result if one party in a proposed relationship feels the exchange will be unequal. This could happen in one of two ways. One organization may feel the proposed course of action is unilateral, that they have no real voice in deciding what or how it will happen. An organization also can feel the exchange would be unequal. It might feel that it would cost them too much in resources compared with the proposed benefit, or that another party stands to gain more resources than other partners. (Levine and White 1961)
The "domains" of organizations can overlap in several major ways:
Over Goals- Although general goals of participating organizations seem mutually dependent, a particular proposal for joint action is perceived to work against the interest of one of the intended partners or against another limited goal.
Example: A delinquency-prevention group declines to form a working relationship with a community center in a target neighborhood. They feel the center would be devoting too much attention to counseling other family members about other problems rather than counseling troubled youth. (Reid 1969)
Over Resources- Proposals, requests for public or private funds, shared staff, supplies, facilities, etc. from other organizations, etc. may be competing. Sometimes one intended party is denied totally. Sometimes distribution is to both parties, but on an unequal basis. In other situations, conflict over resources might result from how many resources should be put in to the joint effort, not from which gets more from a collaborative effort. (Reid 1969)
Example: Both 4-H and the Boy Scouts apply to a service club for funds to plant trees on Arbor Day.
Over Geography- One organization feels they provide some service to or represent interests of an area exclusively. To allow another organization to operate in the area may suggest that the first organization is not doing an adequate job. It also may be perceived as a duplication of effort, or a source of potential confusion to target audiences.
Example: Two organizations both propose to begin teen pregnancy prevention programs in the same neighborhood.
Over Methods- Organizations have a general agreement on goals, but one feels the approach proposed to reach goals would be ineffective or counterproductive to other interests of organization. In another form, one organization may feel a degree of "ownership" over an activity or technique that another organization plans to use.
Examples: One organization in a coalition proposes to work toward improving funding for new child care centers by writing proposals to local foundations. Another organization wants to endorse political candidates who favor increased state funding for establishing new centers.
An organization has held an annual "pancake breakfast" on Valentine's Day for the past five years to raise funds for its youth softball league. Another organization proposes that the coalition hold a county-wide pancake breakfast on Presidents' Day to raise money to purchase drug abuse prevention coloring books.
Over Identity or Public Perception- An organization feels that proposed cooperation would change how their organization is viewed by public (less powerful, more or less conservative, feels threatened by potential success of other partner).
Example: A school system with falling student reading achievement scores is asked to distribute flyers for collaboration tutoring program.
Over Personalities- A representative of one organization is personally disliked by staff of another or represents a political or organizational.
Long term it is better to avoid turf battles than to have to deal with them. Before initiating or becoming a member of a coalition, there are certain things to remember:
Organizations should think twice before inviting groups that have only a partial or marginal relationship to the coalition mission to join the group. Doing homework by consulting newspaper files, and interviewing organizational representatives and residents can be good sources of basic information. (Cener 1988) It also can suggest future avenues of positive involvement for some members.
Organizational relationships are complex. We can almost never know all we need to know at the time a decision must be made. When working in coalitions or collaborations, differences in the goals, resources or fields of activity may arise between members. In a well-planned effort, the clarity of goals and benefits, open communication and a forum for discussion of differences can be the glue that holds things together and keeps momentum going.
For Harold Goetzkow and John Gyr, group conflict has two basic dimensions- substantive and affective. Substantive refers to conflicts primarily related to task. In the examples above, "turf battles" related to goals, methods, resources and geography would fall in this category. Affective conflicts relate to socio-emotional or interpersonal relations. (Ross and Ross, 139) Turf battles related to identity or personality as described above are conflicts of this type. Morton Deutsch also points out that affective disagreements may arise over preferences and nuisances, values, beliefs and the nature of relationships. (Ross and Ross, 138)
The first step in deciding how to best handle the disagreement within a coalition is to identify whether it is a substantive or affective conflict.
If the dispute is task-related, the coalition should use an orderly problem-solving process to focus and structure its efforts toward a solution. As Zald suggests, incorrect or incomplete information is often a major part of a turf dispute. To minimize or make amends for these gaps or misunderstandings, coalition leadership can use several techniques. Discussion at group meetings can include one or more information-seeking techniques built into agenda activities.
Group leaders also should be sensitive to improving communication and active listening during and between meetings. These could include questions from the chair, summary statements of what other members have just said and attempts to make sure questions from the floor are properly answered. Leadership might find it necessary to recommend certain items be clarified and reported on by the next meeting. Sometimes an ad hoc committee may be needed to recommend a course of action or work out a compromise.
For resolving psychological or affective disputes, Scheidel and Crowell suggest that coalitions have several avenues to attempt. The group should look for some way to translate or relate the conflict to a task issue. This defuses much of the emotional element. The coalition should try to keep the focus on the whole group arena rather than on organizations involved in the disagreement. Leaders should encourage members to remain tolerant and restrain emotions and language. Coalitions should have a conflict management procedure developed just in case. (Ross and Ross, 172)
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Levine, Sol and Paul White. "Exchange as a Conceptual Framework for the Study of Interorganizational Relationships." Administrative Science Quarterly (March 1961).
McKnight, John L. and John Kretzmann. Mapping Community Capacity. Neighborhood Innovations Network, Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Evanston: Northwestern University, 1991.
Reid, William J. "Interagency Coordination in Social Welfare: A Theoretical Approach to Analysis and Intervention." In Readings in Community Organization Practice, edited by Ralph M. Kramer and Harry Specht. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969.
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Zald, Mayer N. "Organizations As Polities: An Analysis of Community Organization Agencies." In Readings in Community Organization Practice, 1969.
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