Barbara A. Brahm
Margaret E. Griffiths
Communities can mobilize to work for changes that will benefit the social, emotional, financial and physical needs of citizens.
Each community is a microcosm of a nation. It includes a dozen publics. It is the educational and professional groups, members of fraternal organizations, women's and garden clubs. It is business and industry, civic leaders, youth, media, labor and church leaders and the elderly. It is the community at large, which may react differently as a group than its members would as individuals. (White, 1)
Mobilizing the community begins when:
When individuals and organizations come together to work on an issue, it is common to see them scramble over "turf" issues and for multiple, unrelated programs to result. The group needs to come to a consensus of moving toward collaboration. For this to happen, there needs to be time allowed for trust building. This is where the different individuals and organizations examine their capabilities and motivations. Ideas are exchanged, problems resolved and participants learn to give and take. (Dye and Wood 1981, 2)
For successful coalitions to happen, working relationships must be developed between each member of the coalition and the groups must put the plan into practice. Coordinating mechanisms can help.
In addition, it is necessary that any collaborative effort be as open as possible. Involve the broadest circle of agencies and organizations to encourage collaboration around the common issue. It is essential that any collaborative effort does not threaten or duplicate existing efforts on the same issue. The coalition also must recognize that the public will be pushing for action and results.
The natural allies for mobilization are those persons who have a common interest in an issue. This can include community-minded individuals and all persons and groups affected by the issue.
It is important that the group have linkages either by representation or delegation to the power structure, government agencies, key communicators, advisory boards, local businesses and educational institutions.
Membership in a community coalition falls into three categories:
Various strategies are used to form coalitions. It has worked successfully to form an organization of the diverse groups who have a common interest, identify and recruit potential members, and establish a governing board. The coordinator of the group facilitates the decision-making process and helps members work together. Due to coordinating effort and visibility, formal groups are able to carry out large projects. Unfortunately, this strategy requires more time and effort to develop and operate.
Another strategy is less formal and can be applied to a community of any size. It targets particular segments of the population through building informal networks.
Various methods for mobilization can be used, including a town meeting approach or speakouts. Their common factors are they are process oriented activities and include individual, follow- up and concrete portions.
The initial large meeting allows for education and suggests the democratic process. Sign-up sheets at this meeting will help with the next phase, which is done by subcommittees who follow through on assignments and issues. It is here the individual is recognized and appreciates the openness. Finally, there is the concrete work of the subcommittee that shows the community they are working for change. (Burghard 1986, 40)
When launching a new program or mobilizing the public to action on a community need, an effective, comprehensive public relations plan must be developed. This generates greater support and involvement in programs and activities that address the need. A new program must be recognized and perceived as an asset to the community.
Barbara L. White, Ph.D., says an effective public relations plan will help those who are concerned contribute to the creation of positive attitudes where none exist. She also notes that it will intensify existing positive attitudes, convert existing negative attitudes and sometimes neutralize persistent negative attitudes. Sound public relations programs are planned for before, during and after a program's introduction. The objective is to sell the program, to gain support and to maximize involvement. The program must be visible, viewed as a necessity and appreciated for what it offers. (White, 2-3)
To add a competitive edge to the initiative, program publicity must go through the following stages:
Guidelines for a local community public relations plan include:
A public relations task force reaches the public in two ways:
A mobilization plan should raise the public's consciousness about the problem, garner the support of the citizens and involve an effective percentage of the population in active program participation. (White, 2)
The early focus of any public mobilization plan should:
White recommends that a mobilization plan have specific goals, objectives, activities and timeliness. A multiple-year plan should:
|Model Format of Mobilization Plan|
|Public Mobilization Plan||Implementation Schedule|
|A. Graphic presentation with brochure handout to representatives of:|
|I. Business Community|
|II. Educational Systems|
|III. Low Enforcement|
|IV. Human/Social Services|
|VII. Other Groups As Determined By The Coalition|
|B. Public Relations Packet to:|
|I. Opinion Speakers|
|II. Speakers bureaus in place at various businesses, organizations|
|III. Public Service Announcements on radio and television|
|IV. News items to newsletters of various businesses|
|V. Bill Boards|
|VI. Video/Slide Presentations|
|S-Study E-Evaluate P-Plan PI-Pilot|
|I-Implement R-Recommendation *-Budget Item O-Ongoing|
Established groups and coalitions have a different set of concerns to address.
The most common problems facing established grassroots groups are a self-satisfied inwardness that may over time breed marginality, a lack of outward growth and a leaning for elitist or undemocratic functioning. An easy way to identify the early signs of inwardness is the tendency for group members to use first names, abbreviations and shorthand words.
To prevent stagnation and continue group outreach, organizers must serve as role models and carefully, but consistently, intervene when abbreviations and shorthand words are used in the group. Once group outreach is dropped, it is difficult to reestablish. Subcommittee reports should always give brief information on why the committee was formed. The emphasis on procedural items for explanation, clarity in communication and clear terminology will speak to new people of the group's commitment to growth and their desire for newcomers.
Older members of established groups also have needs to be met. They may need to feel their work is worthwhile by public validation. Make certain that part of the group's activities include some form of education and development to keep members aware of larger group goals, concerns and issues.
A final issue for established groups to address initially is the nature of its leadership. The greater the shared decision-making, the greater the long- term benefits for both membership and group. One structural issue to work toward is limiting a person's position as lead of the organization to no more than two years. Also, no one in the group should be excused from performing all the tasks involved in the operation of the group. (Burghard 1986, 42-45)
Some success of any community mobilization effort lies in how well opposition, criticism and other barriers are met. To sustain the mobilization effort, be honest, clear, factual and timely. Focus on the continuing assessment of communication needs, involving coalition members and community citizens on all levels. Make certain staff and public participants (those involved in publicly mobilizing the program) are still committed to its implementation. (White, 13)
Turf wars (who takes credit for program results) and pecking order can be principal roadblocks to successful collaboration and community mobilization. Best results come when all groups involved jointly take credit and share in the results of the mobilization. (Quick, Flashma and Gibeaux, 73)
A community must be approached cautiously to figure out centers of interaction and who the natural helpers and gatekeepers are to help facilitate awareness. Gottlieb (1974) emphasizes that natural helpers should not be "professionalized" through training or they may have less caring, concern and help. To be fully successful, mobilizers cannot afford to be insensitive to, or ignorant of, natural helping systems as they are at the heart of the sense of community. (Murray and Keller, 153-154)
Cultural differences in the community can be a barrier to mobilization bringing conflict and misunderstanding.
Another barrier can be the lack of quick adjustments to unforeseen problems.
Much can be done to enhance community mobilization. Guidelines for beginning groups include: (White, 12)
Know the groups, the organizations and the individuals you hope to activate. Do not treat individuals in a group as though they are all the same. Factors that guarantee success in motivation are: (White, 12)
Other tips for enhancing community mobilization include:
Community mobilization through coalitions and groups can have high payoffs for communities in one or more ways:
When essential elements and conditions come together, a true sense of community evolves; one that inspires, energizes and rewards members of as they resolve joint problems. Leaders take a positive stand. The diversity is recognized and used as a strength.
"Community" becomes redefined as more than a place, and more than the elements that divide people. It becomes the way in which people live and work together. The result is what some would describe as a "mobilization of coalitions and collaboratives," that those who live in the community simply describe as "the way we do things in our community." (Own and Miller, 6)
Burghard, Steve. Organizing for Community Action, University of Michigan School of Social Work, Sage Publications, 1986.
Dye, Robert R., John S. Wood. "A Different Game: Collaborating to Serve Youth at Risk," National Council of YMCAs, National Collaboration for Youth, Journal of Voluntary Action Research (July-December, 1981).
Heleen, Owen and Frederick T. Miller. Mobilizing Local Coalitions and Collaborations to Better Serve Children at Risk. Boston: Institute for Responsive Education and Medford, Massachusetts: Lincoln Filene Center, Tufts University.
Murray, J. Dennis and Peter A. Keller. Innovations in Rural Community Mental Health,Mansfield, Pennsylvania: Mansfield University Rural Services Institute.
Quick, Sam, Robert Flashman and Arlene Gibeaux. SOS Learning Networks: A Model of Interorganizational Cooperation. University of Kentucky.
Thomas, John, Thomas E. Hart and Stuart C. Smith. Building Coalitions, ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, Oregon, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, D.C., 1989.
White, Barbara L., Ph.D. Mobilizing the Public to Better Serve Children At-Risk. Community Relations and Public Information. Jackson, Mississippi: Jackson Public Schools.
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